2-hrly Bronchitis, received inhalations and mist Ipecac. This article is part of our larger educational resource on World War Two. Geoff Cornish and I have pooled our recollections and at Belaria plus North Compound, over an approximately 2-year period (up to 2000 men), the emergencies were: 3 cases of appendicitis requiring surgery, One of the psychiatric cases was under guard on the way to hospital and wandered off disorientated and was shot. Because he spoke German, Geoff Cornish and one med. Held by the Nazis to be racially and politically inferior, they were starved and brutalised. More severe cases (frequent bowel motions not seen to be responding to medicine & diet, perhaps pyrexial) were admitted and Twee would perform the ‘fork test’… a stool specimen was obtained and if faeces passed through fork prongs, bed and sulphaguanidine was the treatment. All this time the 400 or so US Army Air Corps who had shared Belaria with us had been our companions but now the Germans separated us and moved them off in a different direction. Place: Germany Copyright: Public . Headaches and minor aches got APC tablets. We had just dropped 13,000 pounds of bombs… a 4,000 pound “cookie” plus incendiaries and we were stooging along at 163 mph (280 km/hr) taking infra-red photographs for the first time in WW2, when we were attacked from below by a German night fighter which hit the port wing and fuselage, setting the wing on fire and wrecking my instrument panel. 27%. This page was last edited on 14 July 2020, at 16:09 (UTC). These were either Unteroffiziers or Gefreiters (Corporal or Soldiers) who wore blue dungarees with a belt and a small Mauser pistol. In the mid 1990's, Jensen along with members of the Yellowstone Historical Society, were the first to do extensive research on the camps in Montana. All these gave some purpose to life. A range of sports were played when the weather was fine and in the evenings there were sometimes concerts. student were left in charge of them. Canada operated prison camps for interned civilians during the First and Second World Wars, and for 34,000 combatant German prisoners of war (POWs) during the Second World War. In 1939 there were only two Prisoner of War camps in Britain. There were around 1,000 Prisoner-of-War camps in Germany during World War II.Germany was a signatory at the Third Geneva Convention, which established the provisions relative to the treatment of Prisoners of War. Of the almost 100,000 Germans captured following the Battle of Stalingrad, only 5,000 survived the war. Where the nails came from is a mystery but I bet the huts would not stand up in a storm when we left! We were fortunate at Belaria to have a few men who had been prisoners for some time to give us advice on life style change. It is a shock to the system, to say the least, to be “transported within hours, from a comfortable Officers Mess to a situation where comfort disappeared, food was restricted and you had no freedom except to walk round and round the same piece of dirt every day”. He survived. Oflags (ringed in red on the map) were German prison camps for officers while Stalags (ringed in blue) were for both officers and enlisted men. He had been a POW for nearly 3 years and spoke German. The trigger-happy guard fired at him and hit him in the hand causing a fracture of 3 metacarpals. Street names were German and even the Each of these held between 2,000 and 3,000 German POWs. I was the camp doctor’s first patient at the Lazaret. In Reprinted Articles  Styes hot spoon bathing… a spoon with cotton wool held by cotton or a piece of small bandage dipped into hot water and held near the eye. To do this, the Germans had separated off some huts to form their admin centre or vorlager and then surrounded the remaining huts with a double row of barbed wire, about 4 metres high, with a gap of a metre between the rows. The Three Great Pandemics, Syphilis – Its early history and Treatment until Penicillin and the Debate on its Origins, History of Tuberculosis. … The American Red Cross inspected the camps to monitor conditions, but there were few complaints, as the German POWs had heard rumors of the horrible conditions in Russian POW camps. The rest of the POWs took the tables from their rooms, up-turned them, knocked off the legs, nailed them to the table top to make runners and tied a cord to the sledge so produced. Blisters and ‘flu’ were rife and the SBO managed to persuade the German commandant to take a few of the sicker POWs to the local army hospital at Muskau. The following article on German POW camps in World War Two is an excerpt from Barrett Tillman’ D-Day Encyclopedia. But the same expertise was turned to making long pipes when tunneling was going on. Still, German POWs (prisoners of war) in the Soviet Union lived much better than Soviet prisoners in the Third Reich. The usual form of transport was by train and the length of the journey depended on both the distance to travel and the number of times the train would be shunted into a siding to make way for a passing troop train. The area the camp was in was a dusty farming area, and this could be a nuisance with larger wounds like burns. In addition to the above, we in the Lazaret at Belaria got patient comfort parcels occasionally for food distribution to the patients and on a smaller scale. In the European theater, 93,941 Americans were held as prisoners of war (POWs). Citation totals as listed on Google Scholar, Journal of Military and Veterans’ Health, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, Syphilis – Its early history and Treatment until Penicillin and the Debate on its Origins, Definition of Terrorism – Social and Political Effects, Load Carriage: Minimising Soldier Injuries Through Physical Conditioning - A Narrative | This area of research also includes the history and first hand documentation of the 57 day, 500+ mile, forced "Death March" from Luft 4 of 6,000+ airmen. The camps were located all over the US, but were mostly in the South, due to the higher expense of heating the barracks in colder areas. He had been invalided from the Stalingrad front but I did not discover his name. Major camps, as well as camps mentioned throughout the exhibit, are indicated on this map. As the bombing of Germany increased, the rail communications were increasingly weakened. Our supply of aspirins and APC went down very rapidly. It was at the end of the column so that any sick marchers could drop out of the column and be picked up as we passed. These were old lags who had escaped once or twice and the Germans sensed something was afoot at North Compound in the way of an escape and removed those they considered ringleaders, including WGCDR Bob Tuck and Geoff Cornish. Out into the cold night air (it was about 2020 hours) count 5, pull the rip cord, a jagging thrust In the thighs and back and… utter silence. Parts of the camp in between huts were used as ‘allotments’ to grow a few vegetables but the soil was very poor, although potatoes and tomatoes would grow. I can’t remember where the seeds came from for this venture. The above map shows some of the German POW camps were located in Nazi-occupied countries during the second world war. Supplies came through the courtesy of the Germans and Red Cross via Geneva. The German POW camps in Michigan were an interesting part of Michigan's history that I am glad to have found. In Belorussia only pavilions (structures He came from Dublin and when we asked why he was in the RAF he replied with a wicked grin “Well, we can’t have these Germans knocking the British about, else who would we fight after the War”. Please use this data for any reference citations. We had started off later that day and it was almost dark when we arrived at our destination but we were allocated a farm outhouse again, fortunately with lights. As would be expected, our clothes consisted of the items we were wearing when we were shot down and these would obviously not last forever. Several hundred gallons of petrol burning less than 20 feet from you is an occasion for rapid action in the way of evacuation of the area, which five of us did before the plane blew up or crashed. The patient was warned about not having an erection for fear of disastrous surgical consequences. 1800 gm bread (Dauerbrot) (1 loaf = 4 pounds), Vegetables (Swedes, Khol, Rabi, Cabbage, Peas in   season), 100 gm (4oz) Bratlings Pulver or Semolina, 100-160 gm Meat (mince or beef or pork) per 2   weeks. We arrived at Gross Selten at 1530 at a large farm run by Germans and they allowed the medics to use an out house which had a boiler room where we were able to sleep. In the occupied eastern territories conditions were even worse. The POW camps at Lethbridge and Medicine Hat, Alberta, were the largest in North America.. Camps for Civilians . Though prison camps provided some shelter, they didn’t offer great protection against the weather, particularly the cold of winter.Food became a huge preoccupation for prisoners. Needless to say hunger was a feature of most prisoners’ lives. Other topics were used to give instruction and a library was started with books sent over the years to POWs. This 1963 film is about an escape by Allied prisoners of war from a German POW camp, starring Steve McQueen, James Garner, and Richard Attenborough. This was done by having the one carpenter in our midst making seats from Red Cross boxes in which the parcels were brought to the camp. The Germans organised 2 sick carts for the next stage of our journey which was to Birkenstadt some 14 km further and we arrived again at about 1600 with the light fading at a farm worked by a Russian family, who gave us (the medical team) their own sleeping quarters for a sick-room and a bed room. Submit your article Since it is the duty of POWs (especially officers) to escape when possible, much camp activity was geared to acquiring maps, making “ausweiss” (passes), civil clothing from uniforms, photographs and of course tunneling. It is appropriate here to consider differences between the prison camp conditions for Allied POWs held by the enemy. Willi Bungart is a German POW who was captured aged 17 and spent four years in a number of British POW camps. We all spent 7- 10 days there but McIlroy and I were there longer. As Soviet ground forces approached some POW camps in early 1945, German guards forced western Allied POWs to walk long distances towards central Germany, often in extreme winter weather conditions. Thank you for your download, we hope you are satisfied with our software. Map of prisoner of war camps in world war II Germany World War II - Prisoners of War - Stalag Luft I A collection of stories, photos, art and information on Stalag Luft I . The camps provided many facilities families required including doctors and schools which offered American, Japanese, or German lessons. Five days later, the POWs arrived in Berga, a quaint German town of 7,000 people on the Elster River, whose concentration camps appear on few World War II maps. The prisoners were held in some fifty German POW camps, of several types. German POW’s captured by the Russians faced similar prospects. On 16 December 1943, I was sitting at the Navigator’s seat in a very noisy Lancaster bomber over Berlin when something occurred that changed the pattern of my life. Journal of Military and Veterans’ Health (JMVH). Furthermore, services sprang up quickly which enabled those who were determined and interested in keeping their lives going. By Eric Stephenson Elastoplast was scarce but gauze dressings we available to be used dry or with petroleum jelly or icthyol or even acriflavine we made up from tablets dissolved in water. He had an old compound fracture of be thigh, which took a hell of a long time to heal and was obviously very painful, but he did not complain once and always had a grin. If it was necessary to add Prontosil, their fluids were pushed with mist. Even so, a small proportion of POWs did not take part and “turned their faces to the wall”. Since the Red Cross parcels came from Geneva, we realised supplies would drop off so we tried to store food. Prison camps in America, including the one at JBLM, also differentiated between the two, giving 10 cents a day in pay for work to Nazi prisoners and 80 cents a day to German … Issue Volume 18 No. In the United States at the end of World War II, there were prisoner-of-war camps, including 175 Branch Camps serving 511 Area Camps containing over 425,000 prisoners of war (mostly German). To order this book, please visit its online sales page at Amazon or Barnes & Noble. During World War II, 300,000 German Prisoners of War were interred in the United States. In fact, Operation 200 (the Great Escape) occurred about 6 weeks later. and rest in bed and fluids ++. I spent the next 2 months in the camp general with the other POWs who had arrived at Belaria at the same time. Union was played but the ground was very stony and injuries were common. Roughly 570,000 German and Axis prisoners had already died in captivity. Eisenhower's German POW Death Camps - A US Guard's Story By Martin Brech 1-28-2 In October, 1944, at age eighteen, I was drafted into the U.S. army. Life in the camps was a vast improvement for many of the POWs who had grown up in “cold water flats” in Germany, according to former Fort Robinson, Nebraska, POW … About 400,000 Axis prisoners of war captured during World War II were dispatched to 500 camps around the United States. He was the pilot of a mini-sub that damaged outside of Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941. We did this through the forward escape hatch and used parachutes. History lies in the heart of the debate. The SBO walked up and down the column to keep an eye on things and the Oberst (Camp  Commandant at Belaria) drove his car with the adjutant periodically up and down the column. Few of the 91,000 Germans captured at the end of the Battle of Stalingrad ever returned to Germany after the war. To let go and not bother (and a few did) would have been disastrous for morale. And of course “D&V”; the squitters, colleywobbles, Montezuma’s revenge. Activity in this sea involved musicians, actors, painters, electricians and tailors (to make costumes) These gentlemen were also invaluable in altering uniforms to make them like civvy clothes for escape purposes. It had an old microscope and a hand driven centrifuge. He recalls making toys one … Their prisoners of war lived several years (up till five) in regions with German names, with towns and villages with German names. 20 Horrific Details about Japanese POW Camps During World War II By Steve The term “prisoner of war” dates as far back as 1660, recognizing an individual detained by an enemy power in the course of an armed conflict. Bad luck! Australian BulkThis came 3 or 4 times per week while I was at   Belaria.It was mostly dried fruit like sultanas, raisins,   apple, pear, currants and sugar and was shared out on a weight basis for each   man by the ‘catering officer’, a man    detailed by the Senior British Officer (SBO) to do the job of   controlling the issue of Red Cross Parcels.    The Aussies bulk raisins used to get crusty on the outside of the   fruit (long time travelling) and yeasty and this was very useful to make   alcoholic brew which had quite a kick to it. By March 1944, conditions began to improve, but for economic reasons: As its manpower was swallowed up in the war effort, the USSR turned to POWs ...for possible inclusion in JMVH. Regardless, given the facts, these camps did not hold up to the conditions mandated by the Geneva Convention. The Germans and Italians had almost twice as many, 235,473 with a death rate of 4% (242 Australians). We were the doctor, plus 4 medical students (1 an American B17 pilot) and 3 or 4 helpers. This issue was circumnavigated, however, by a decision made in 1943 to declare German soldiers taken prisoner not as POWs, but as Disarmed Enemy Forces (DEF). 281,344 German prisoners were being held in 132 base camps and 334 branch camps, and by April 1945, the number of German POWs had increased to 340,407.3 The first prisoners shipped to this country, how ever, were This case was partly managed in the Lazaret and Hildebrand took him for X-rays to watch progress. Anyway, I didn’t see the church steeple that snagged my parachute and I hit a wall, causing a fracture of the right epicondyle and a Potts fracture of the right ankle. Jewish soldiers and suspected communists were usually shot out of hand. During the Second World War, Dresden contained many prisoners of war (POWs) behind German lines under terrible conditions. A theatrical group developed and a band consisting of a pianist, a trumpeter, a drummer, and two guitarists, and, of course, activities related to escaping. He had very black hair and a black moustache which came down over his mouth and which he frequently chewed, when he was not smoking. Tinea cruris & pedis was quite common and usually responded to Whitfield’s ointment. Some of the Stalag camps were properly named Stalag Luft, short for Stammlager Luftwaffe. In the ensuing melee the POW w back to his hut but was shot in the stomach and was taken to hospital. After WWII, German POWs were enlisted to rebuild France In France, their internment lasted a particularly long time. During World War II, the Germans held American POWs in a system of nearly 100 camps spread throughout German-occupied territory. Most People In Colorado Don’t Know About Our Old German POW Camp For most of our readers, the COVID-19 pandemic and all of the uncertainties surrounding it may go down in history as one of the most trying times in our lives, thanks to not only the health aspect but also the astronomical unemployment rate and being cooped up in our homes for months at a time. These were transit camps where details of the prisoners were processed and they were interrogated. Pot. Rhinitis was treated with inhalations of menthol.. Sore Throats and Tonsillitis received hot salt-water gargles. This was when numbers in the camp shot up and Dr. Monteuuis, who was known as ‘Twee’, after find finding out that I had been a medical student, asked me to join the Lazaret staff to help out, about April 1944. Not the Image but Reality: British POW Experiences In Italian and German Camps by Peter Liddle & Ian Whitehead Peter Liddle has a long-standing commitment to the study of captivity and for some years too has worked with Dr Ian Whitehead from the University of Derby in a number of publications related to the First and Second World Wars. Prisoners would then be transported to a prisoner of war camp. For a … There were more than 140,000 white prisoners in Japanese POW camps. Tin bashers were those who used tins obtained from Red Cross parcels to make trays and dishes for cooking purposes. Former German prisoner of war Günter Gräwe was 18 years old in August of 1944 during what he calls the luckiest time of his life.That was shortly after he, as a new recruit in the German … Soccer was popular and so was cricket. German POW camps of WW II are hard to locate today. We were able to have British army boots, shirts and wool underclothing and later some American greatcoats and gloves were available and kit. Site created in November 2000. It dropped to about 1 between 6. All rights reserved. Daily routine varied from camp to camp but all prisoners would be expected to parade at least once daily for a roll-call. Metal splints like lattice were sometimes to be had and used again and again, either padded with cotton wool or bandages. She said the POW's were paid, which enabled many to regain a life after the war, and added that all the POW's were re-patronized, and knows of only one escapee who later became a U.S. citizen. ’ with screwdrivers with a piece of cake German word for POWs is “ kriegsgefangenen ” which inevitably shortened... 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